Those provisions as stipulated by the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, as they apply to the
Federal community through the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, providing disabled
consumers physical and communications access to services. In addition, it also relates to “the
opportunity of consumers to obtain services based on the location of service, hours of operation, and
affordable fees.” (Council on Accreditation (COA) Glossary, 7th Edition/Version 1.1)

Assessed Secondary Problem

Additional issues that directly affect the primary problem and are often a consequence of the primary

Assessed Tertiary Problem

Additional problems or issues may need to be addressed, which may be related to, or be
independent of, the primary or secondary problem.

Assessed primary problem

An issue or problem determined by the EAP counselor to be the core issue (such as a mental health
concern, work/life issue, and/or medical manifestations) that, once addressed, should result in the
resolution or mitigation of the symptoms and/or problems of the client.


An ongoing process or evaluation in which professional expertise and skills are exercised to collect
and analyze data, which in cooperation with the client, results in identifying, defining and prioritizing
the client’s physical, mental, and social issues, problems or challenges. An assessment provides for
an accurate diagnosis of the client and the basis for a treatment or problem solving plan. (COA
Glossary, 7th Edition/Version 1.1 and subcommittee language)

Blended EAP Model

See EAP Model

Brief/Short-Term Counseling/Treatment

Services provided by the EAP counselor to the employee/client for approximately 1 to 6 sessions.
The basis for the number of sessions is often determined by the philosophy of the agency and/or
financial considerations. When counseling is required beyond the number of sessions originally
provided, the EAP counselor is expected to ensure the employee is referred out and the linkage to
the new counselor is made.

Capitated Risk

The assumption of responsibility by a clinician or an organization for providing specific services to
clients under a pre-established reimbursement agreement,8 and where the contractor assumes the
financial risk should the EAP services delivered exceed the contractor’s cost projections. (COA
Glossary, 7th Edition\Version 1.1, page 2)

Capitation Rate

A per-employee dollar amount per year, paid by a Federal agency to an external EAP provider for
EAP services, under the terms of a contract. In exchange for the payment, the EAP vendor usually
provides all contracted services regardless of the level of use (utilization) by agency’s employees and
covered family members. (EAPA Glossary of Employee Assistance Terminology, 1994, page 4, and
subcommittee modification. Thus, if only one employee received services the entire year, the
contractor would receive 100% of the agreed-to payment. If hundreds of employees were to receive
services, the contractor would have to provide the services at the agreed-to price without any
additional consideration.)

Case Management

The coordinating, monitoring and discharge planning of overall services, by the EAP counselor for
the EAP client and Federal agency, to ensure treatment gains are realized and that the employee
makes the most benefit of the resources at hand. This is usually a standard component of the EAP
vendor’s service and may or may not be provided at an additional charge, when provided by a

Chemical Dependency

Physiological and psychological dependence on a chemical, such as alcohol, tobacco, barbiturate, or
narcotic, which results in a number of physical and emotional symptoms such as increased tolerance
and withdrawal symptoms when the chemical is removed. (COA Glossary, 7th Edition\Version 1.1,
page 3 and committee modification.)


An individual who is eligible to receive EAP services, as defined by agency policy or contract
requirements. A client might include an employee or the employee’s spouse, dependent child, parent,
or domestic partner, or a retiree.


Of or pertaining to examination, assessment, and direct counseling or treatment, as opposed to
experimental or laboratory study.11 (COA, 7th edition\Version 1.1, page 3, modified by including the
word “counseling.” )

Clinical Services

Those services offered by an EAP counselor in which an assessment and counseling are provided.

Counseling Services

Specialized services and therapeutic interventions provided by both licensed and non-licensed
professionals (as permitted by the sponsoring Federal agency) with the purpose of identifying and
mitigating or resolving clients’ personal, professional, financial, mental health, or addiction problems
or challenges. (COA, 7th edition\Version 1.1, page 4, and subcommittee language.)

Counselor, EAP

A specially trained individual, usually licensed in the field of mental health and addictions, who
operates in an occupational setting and whose clients may be both management and employees in

Covered Lives

The total universe of persons who are eligible for EAP services as defined by the sponsoring (host)
agency. A Federal agency might define covered lives as employees and their family members, while
another agency may offer services only to employees.

Crisis Intervention

A brief type of therapy or counseling, offered to persons involved in a highly emotional or traumatic
event, to prevent long-term psychological harm, with the intention of restoring the clients to at least
their pre-crisis level of functioning, and referring to long-term treatment resources as may be

Critical Incident

An event, usually sudden, unexpected and potentially life-threatening, “in which a person experiences
a trauma, i.e., feels overwhelmed by a sense of personal vulnerability and/or lack of control.
Examples of a critical incident are a natural disaster, serious workplace accident, a hostage situation
or violence in the workplace.” (EAPA Glossary, 1994, page 7, and committee language)

Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISB)

A structured group or individual intervention that encourages the expression of thoughts and feelings
about the incident, followed by identification and normalization of symptoms, familiarization with the
process of recovery, and referral to appropriate services. The EAP (in cooperation with the host
organization), usually schedules a CISD at the worksite with a group of employees directly affected
by a critical incident as soon as possible following the traumatic event. (Ibid., with “in cooperation with
the host organization” added.). A CISD is a concept coined by Jeffrey T. Mitchell, Ph.D.,15 and has
become an integral part of the International Critical Incident Stress Foundation (ICISF). It was
originally meant to be applied among public safety, disaster response, and military and emergency
service personnel by a skilled intervention team. The ICISF contends that a CISD can also be used
with virtually any population, including children, when employed by a skilled intervener. Some
researchers contend that “scientific studies have resulted in numerous calls for caution and restraint
in the use of CISD.”

Critical Incident Stress Management

The constellation of services or activities that may be used by an organization to respond to and
manage a critical incident (core concept was developed by the International Critical Incident Stress
Foundation). Services and activities include, but are not limited to, debriefings, outreach to the
workforce, psycho-educational activities related to trauma, anniversary responses, etc. (FOH

Drug Addiction

A state of physiological dependence that results from the abuse of chemical substances. In the
absence of the substance, an individual experiences symptoms of withdrawal. (COA. See also
Chemical Dependency)

Drug Free Workplace

Those laws, regulations and policies emanating from Executive Order (EO) 12564 of September 15,
1986, and subsequently the Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988, that ordered Federal employees to
refrain from using illegal drugs, whether on or off duty. It mandates that the head of each Executive
agency shall develop a plan for achieving the objective of a drug–free workplace. Elements of the
plan include establishing a program to test for the use of illegal drugs by employees in sensitive
positions; training for managers and employees; and establishment of EAPs that emphasize highlevel direction, education, counseling, referral to rehabilitation, and coordination with available
community resources. (Executive Order 12564 and committee language.)

EAP Liaison

Those individuals employed by the sponsoring Federal agency (host) who are responsible for
ensuring that the EAP contract is administered in accordance with established policies and
procedures. (FOH Definitions)

Ethical Standards

A specific set of professional behaviors and values (code of ethics) the employee assistance
professional must know and abide by, including confidentiality, accuracy, privacy, and integrity. A
non-licensed EAP professional or counselor should, at a minimum, abide by the Employee
Assistance Professionals Association (EAPA) Code of Ethics and Employee Assistance Certification
Commission (EACC) Code of Professional Conduct.


Formal principles or values for evaluating practices that are right or wrong, good or bad. Most
professional organizations have ethical codes of conduct that define general standards of appropriate
professional conduct.

Host Organization

The Federal agency or sub-agency that provides the resources to establish and support EAP

Information and Referral

Data addressing specific subjects or community services a client has requested (e.g., psychologist,
elder care, child care, legal referrals) and that the EAP has researched and provided to the client.


The entry point at which a potential EAP client’s eligibility is assessed against established criteria and
a preliminary evaluation of the presenting problem occurs. (COA page 7, with the additional words “a
potential EAP client’s” were added. Usually the first appointment with the counselor is when the
intake occurs. Intake usually begins in the first appointment with the counselor.)

Main Page

The Employee Assistance Society of North America (EASNA) is the association for professionals
interested in advancing knowledge, research, and best practices toward achieving health and
productive workplaces. Our members include EAP providers, clinicians, work life and human
resources professionals, students, educators, and researchers.

Mandatory Referral

A referral by the supervisor to the EAP for an employee’s positive drug test or other events
designated by the agency. While this referral to the EAP is mandatory, there is no authority or
requirement to compel an employee to partake of EAP services, which are voluntary. Failure to do
so, however, may have adverse consequences for the employee.

Other Referral

Referral to the EAP of an employee by a union official, medical review officer, health unit, or through
any means other than a self-referral or a supervisory referral. (FOH Definitions)

Outcome Goals

Expected results related to EAP services. (EAPA page 13. Such goals might be a reduction in sick
leave, improved organizational efficiency, etc.)

Outcome Measures

Standards by which outcome goals can be evaluated to determine whether goals have been attained

Peer-Based Programs (or Peer Support Program)

An in-house program, typically delivered through trained peer/coworker volunteers. Usually offers
education, training, and referrals.

Peer Support Personnel

Federal employees who have volunteered to participate in an agency’s Peer Support Program. Peers
are non-professionals who usually have a limited role in assisting their peers when there are
traumatic events at work or other personal challenges. (See “EAP Model.”)

Presenting Problem

The personal concern or issue as described by the EAP client prior to assessment by the EAP

Return to Work Agreement

An agreement among an employee, the employee’s supervisor, the EAP, treatment provider and
other parties as may be appropriate, to establish a set of conditions for the employee’s return to
work. It is usually issued following extended leave for treatment for substance abuse or physical or
mental illness. The conditions found in the agreement are usually related to duties, conduct,
attendance and treatment scheduling. The agreement also states any consequences, if agreed-upon
conditions are violated and what action the supervisor may take. A Return to Work Agreement should
be drafted in consultation with the agency’s Employee Relations staff.

Risk Management

A systematic process for evaluating and reducing potential harm that may befall personnel,
consumers of service, an organization, or a facility.


A meeting between an EAP counselor and client, usually lasting 45 to 50 minutes.

Statement of Understanding

A document that describes the limits of confidentiality and the services available through the EAP. It is given to the employee at the beginning of the first session and must be signed prior to the
employee receiving counseling. The elements of the statement must contain those reflected in 42
CFR part 2, subsection, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (if applicable
to the agency), and other unique circumstances about the EAP that should be disclosed to the

Unit Cost

A calculation of the price or value of a fixed amount or unit of service that takes into account the sum
of all organizational expenditures involved in the provision of that service. (COA, page 12.)